Friday, May 22, 2020

The Transformation of Tom Joad in John Steinbeck’s The...

In John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath, Tom Joad is the protagonist. After serving four years in jail for murder, he is finally out on parole. When Tom is first introduced, he is portrayed as a negative character. Tom is stubborn and likes things to go his way. In the beginning of the novel Tom lives his life day by day, the future does concern him. Throughout the novel Tom develops from a man only interested in his own independent personal needs and desires to someone who is devoted to his family, and is willing to sacrifice his own personal comfort for their benefit. By the end of the novel Tom Joad transformed from a negative character into a positive character who cares about the future of his nation and the families that are†¦show more content†¦He only cares about getting his own way at the exact moment only cares about getting his way at that exact moment. Tom Joad lives his life with the â€Å"one foot before the other† type of attitude. The future does not concern him in the beginning of the novel. He does not think about the next day until the next day is there. He does this because he does not want to worry himself. He is afraid that if he becomes worried about his future, then he will become obsessed with it and will eventually be driven to insanity. As the novel went on, Tom realized that it was he that held his family together and provided the determination and support to keep going on. He possesses the skills and knowledge to make money on his own, but he decides to stay with his family and help them move along. The Joad family encounters many dilemmas where Tom has to make crucial decisions. Tom starts to realize what is best for his family’s future. At first, Tom only cared about himself and how he would succeed. Pretty soon, he has the same line of thinking as Preacher Jim Casy. â€Å"[sic] I’ll be ever’where-wherever you look. Wherever they’s a fight so hungry people ca n eat, I’ll be there. Wherever they’s a cop beatin’ up a guy, I’ll be there† (Steinbeck 537). Tom is talking about how he wants to organize a strike like what Casy did. He believes that if everyone joins together, then the cops can not touch them. He forgot about what is best forShow MoreRelatedJohn Steinbeck s The Great Depression1405 Words   |  6 PagesThe historical masterpiece written by John Steinbeck portrays a story about a humble family who are forced to find jobs during the time of the Great depression. The characters are hopeful, as they pray for a pray for a brighter future. Steinbeck tries to demonstrate the strength of unity, and that working together will triumph anything that is done individually. Rather than sticking to their own beliefs, the characters are modeled by their environment. They have no choice but to seek help to beRead MoreCatcher In the Rye vs. Grapes of Wrath Essay1787 Words   |  8 Pagesis analyzed in The Catcher in the Rye and The Grapes of Wrath. Both authors address the corruption; however they do so from different perspectives they come to differing resolutions. Both protagonists in their novels experience isolation as a result of society’s corruption; however, Salinger’s chooses to isolate himself whereas Steinbeck’s experiences isolation inadvertently. J.D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye and John Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath share a social commentary about how corruptionRead MoreThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck1579 Words   |  7 Pages In the two texts A Fine Balance (1995) by Rohinton Minstry and The Grapes of Wrath (1939) by John Steinbeck, the idea that adverse experiences impact an individual’s beliefs is explored through the different ways that the composers of both texts convey how living in a hostile environment and loss can change an individual’s personal philosophy. Throughout the two texts it is apparent that a hostile and oppressive society exists and through the use of various techniques, the authors reveal how livingRead MoreThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck1806 Words   |  8 PagesThe Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck depicts the story of the fictional Joad family on their journey from Dust Bowl-plagued Oklahoma to California in search of work as well as the struggles they encounter along the way. The Dust Bowl in Oklahoma displaced many families, and these so called â€Å"Okies†faced discrimination and, in some cases, illegal mistreatment by landowners and even by government agencies such as the police. Due to the failure of federal, state, and local governments to adequatelyRead MoreThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck Essay1559 Words   |  7 PagesJohn Steinbeck’s The Grapes of Wrath and Paul Thomas Anderson’s There Will Be Blood both explore the concept of the human condition and the qualities undermining t he circumstances of our sentient through the gripping lives of the two leading protagonists. John Steinbeck explores Tom Joad as the main protagonist in The Grapes of Wrath and connects his character with the audience through his significantly adjuring transformation from ‘ex-con’ to selfless family man throughout the text. Inversely, PaulRead MoreThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck1645 Words   |  7 PagesBoth John Steinbeck’s criticism and optimism was written into The Grapes of Wrath, a book that he researched for nearly two years before he finally finished the book. While writing the novel, he said to his friend and literary agent: â€Å"I must go over into the interior valleys. There are about five thousand families starving to death over there...The states and counties will give them nothing because they are outsiders. But the crops of any part of this state could not be harvested without these outsidersRead MoreThe Steinbeck s The Grapes Of Wrath By J ohn Steinbeck4043 Words   |  17 Pagesswallowing depression of the 1920’s, The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck provides a hallowing, realistic view into the plight of the proletariat farmer and the exploitation that was all too common during the Great Depression by major corporations. Steinbeck’s literary work serves as a window into the world of the great depression by not only providing a narrative history of the era, but also giving faces to the nameless victims through the characters of Tom Joad, the lead protagonist of the story and

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Split Journals- the Catcher and the Rye - 1467 Words

Split journal instructions Ideas/events in Catcher in the Rye My reaction X X X X X X X X x X X X x Sample A: Holden says that he is, â€Å"trying to feel some kind of goodbye†¦Ã¢â‚¬  school. (Chapter 1 pg 4) Sample B: Holden Caulfield went to visit a teacher who failed him before he left for winter break (Chapter 2 pg 6-) Chapter 1a: When Holden got kicked out of school. Chapter 1b: When the book speaks of Holden being the fencing captain. Chapter 2a: Throughout chapter 2 Holden is being lectured about his grades. Chapter 2b: In chapter 2 Holden walks away while being lectured. Chapter 3a: Holden is annoyed by the kid in the next dorm to him. Chapter 3b: In the end of the chapter,†¦show more content†¦Response 5a: Reading this made me think of 7th grade. I litteraly would write my friend’s papers all the times. Because we use to have these book reports where we had to read a book and just type a large summary. So that was easy, and my friend didn’t like doing them. So he paid me for it. Response 5b: I know you are going to think this is a â€Å"bogus† connection, but let me re-assure you this instantly popped in my head as I read this, and I thought you should know. My dad snores SO LOUD. He can literally wake me up from it sometimes. When I have friends, they are like â€Å"what is that?† To only make matters worse my dog is an English bull dog. That dog snores in harmony with my dad. It’s crazy. Response 6a: I can’t connect to Holden really, but with Stadelater I kind of can. The other night I went to Buffalo Wild Wings, and my friend ordered an 18 pc wings. Then he gave him a coupon for 6 free wings. He told the guy that he wanted 6 Habanera sauce one and if he couldn’t use the coupon, just to move the 6 to his 18. He did that because he still wanted the 6 habanera sauce ones. So the guy charged him for each wing instead of giving him the meal that he wanted with the 6 wings, and it was more expensive because it was a meal deal thing. My friend started like getting loud with the guy that was serving us because my friend thought it was a dumb mistake. I was a little embarrassed. Response 6b: I can’t really connect to Holden, but I kind ofShow MoreRelated Catcher in the Rye Essay: Holden - The Misfit Hero2101 Words   |  9 PagesThe Misfit Hero of The Catcher In The Rye      Ã‚     The Catcher In The Rye by J.D. Salinger was published in 1951. A recurring theme in J.D. Salingers stories concerns people who dont fit in with the traditional American Culture. Salingers misfit heroes, unlike the rest of society, are caught in the struggle between a superficial world and a conscious morality (1 Wildermuth). In his attempt to create a new and realistic portrayal of the times, Salinger first, effectively creates Holden CaulfieldRead MoreSummary Of Salinger s The Rye 2149 Words   |  9 Pagesthe danger and risk that constantly encompasses them in our society today. Children are subjected to this world and once they are exposed to the corruption it is difficult to maintain the innocence that they once embodied. In J.D. Salinger’s â€Å"Catcher in the Rye† there is an evident need and desire to preserve a sense of innocence among the characters in a world that lacks innocence. Holden Caulfield, the main character in Salinger’s novel, is a force that tries to promote the idea of innocence andRead MoreTaking a Look at Schizophrenia1249 Words   |  5 Pagesschizophrenia with split personality or multiple personality disorder (Lilienfeld et al, 2010). The misunderstanding stems from the meaning of the word schizophrenia, as in Greek it means split mind (Boruck, 2008). In 1990, Carlson proposed â€Å"schizophrenia is probably the most misused psychological term in existence† . Vaughan (1977), performed a study which found that 77% of students who registered for introductory psychology classes supported the myth about schizophrenics having a split personality

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dementia And The Associated Stigmatisation Health And Social Care Essay Free Essays

Dementia derives from Latin de intending ‘out of ‘ and work forces intending ‘the head ‘ . Dementia is an organic mental upset which affects the encephalon. Furthermore, dementedness is a degenerative progressive procedure. We will write a custom essay sample on Dementia And The Associated Stigmatisation Health And Social Care Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now The CDCP ( 2004 ) states that dementedness is the 5th taking cause of decease amongst the 65 plus group. Dementia affects all groups every bit ; â€Å" no societal or racial lines, and the hapless, the wise and the simple alike are affected. † ( McCugh et al, 1999: 7 ) No two people will hold symptoms that develop in precisely the same manner, and symptoms vary depending on the advancement of the unwellness. Symptoms by and large comprise of memory loss, freak out, damages with logical thinking, opinion and apprehension, trouble with executing daily things, psychotic beliefs, agitation, restlessness and rational damage. Age is an of import hazard factor. Dementia is rare below the age of 65, but unluckily it still can happen but on the plus side it can still be diagnosed. Those people diagnosed with dementedness under the age of 65 are described to hold early onset dementedness. A recent instance survey is that of Mark Priddy who was diagnosed with Alzheimer ‘s disease at the age of 36. As a individual ‘s age additions, the prevalence of dementedness additions. The prevalence of dementedness amongst the over 65 is one out of 20, increasing to one individual out of five amongst the over 80. Types: There are many types of dementedness as dementedness is the umbrella term.Alzheimer ‘s is the most common type of dementedness. The Alzheimer ‘s Society found that Alzheimer ‘s disease affects around 417,000 people in the UK. Alzheimer ‘s disease occurs when a alteration in construction of the encephalon occurs, where ‘plaques ‘ and ‘tangles ‘ develop. There are besides a diminishing figure of nervus cells. Chemical alterations besides occur within the encephalon, where chemicals are involved with the transmittal of messages within the encephalon are at a deficit peculiarly the neurotransmitters acetylcholine. Changes such as these within the encephalon construction and the chemical science of the encephalon, cause encephalon cells to decease. Symptoms of Alzheimer ‘s disease involve confusion, temper swings, backdown, and communicating jobs and the ulterior phase, trouble with feeding, walking and continency occurs where the likelihood of dependence will happen. Blood supply to the encephalon allows the encephalon to work decently, and to be healthy. Blood is delivered through the vascular system, supplying O to the encephalon. When blood ca n’t make the encephalon, the cells dice and the encephalon becomes damaged, taking to vascular dementedness. High blood pressure can be a cause for vascular dementedness. It is really of import to place and handle high blood pressure. A individual shot is called single-infarct dementedness, nevertheless, it is more common that a series of little shots occur, which is so called multi-infarct dementedness. It is said that vascular dementedness has a ‘step-like ‘ patterned advance, of where a sudden impairment occurs. Dementia with Lewy organic structures histories for a little figure of the entire instances. The Alzheimer ‘s Society has estimated that dementedness with Lewy organic structures histories for around 4 % of all instances of dementedness with the aged. Lewy organic structures occur when proteins in the celebral cerebral mantle and the encephalon root develop and construct up. It portions its features with Alzheimer ‘s disease and Parkinson ‘s disease. However, the individual ‘s memory is less affected compared to Alzheimer ‘s. Similar symptoms to Parkinson ‘s disease include musculus stiffness, awkwardness, loss of facial looks and scuffling. The differentiation between the two is of import as it can hold profound deductions for direction. Front-temporal dementedness is another rare signifier of dementedness, and includes Pick ‘s disease. Damage occurs to the front-lobe of the encephalon, which is responsible for our behavior, emotional responses and linguistic communication accomplishments. Often, the person ‘s memory remains integral, but their personality and behavior alterations. Other symptoms include loss of suppressions, a decrease in or deficiency of address, acting unsuitably, and or going aggressive. This type of dementedness is characterised by a younger of oncoming, with the 75 old ages old being a rare to be diagnosed. Diagnosis: Early on symptoms are frequently elusive doing it hard to name. It frequently takes up to one twelvemonth or longer for a concluding diagnosing to be made. Dementia is merely identifiable with certainty after a post-mortem scrutiny. Early diagnosing is of import as it allows better attention programs to be developed for the hereafter, and interventions can besides be started. Doctors employ a figure of schemes to name dementedness. It is of import that they rule out any treatable conditions, such as depression, or vitamin B12 lack. Doctors frequently begin with patient history and physical scrutiny. They can urge a specializer, of which encephalon trials take topographic point. Imaging scans, such as a magnetic resonance imagination ( MRI ) scan, which can supply information about the physical province and construction of your encephalon The mini-mental province scrutiny ( MMSE ) is a Screen for Cognitive Impairment. It is most normally used to prove for ailments of memory jobs or when a diagnosing of dementedness is being considered. The trial consists of a series of inquiries and trials, where each inquiry answered right receives points. From an accomplishable mark of 30, the lower the mark the more terrible the disease.A Peoples with Alzheimer ‘s disease by and large score 26 points or less. It must be noted that the MMSE is non a trial for Alzheimer ‘s disease or any other cause of dementedness. However, the trial is questionable. First, there are many other grounds why person might score less than 26 points. Second, Holzer at Al ( 1984 ) argues that the †choice of a cut-off mark to find the presence of dementedness is slightly arbitrary. † ( Ineichen, 1998: 11 ) Treatments and Remedies: Although dementedness is irreversible and incurable, intercession techniques have been developed to better the jobs every bit much as possible. The attacks do non work with everyone, so there must be an recognition of single differences, jobs and their willingness to set about intercession. For illustration, if depression is developed during the early phases of Dementia, this can be treated. Besides, prompting techniques can be used for memory loss. Busch ( 1984 ) found four subjects within curative attacks. These include world orientation, reminiscence, remotivation and resocialisation. It is non merely the patients who can be approached but besides the household and health professional via reprieve and support groups. Taulbee and Folson ( 1966 ) back up the methods of intercession, reasoning that it †makes the patient feel that he is worth something after all, that he can still carry through something. † Drugs merely have a impermanent consequence, handling the symptoms but non the causes. Nonetheless, some drug interventions available can better the symptoms or decelerate down the patterned advance of the dementedness in some persons. FDA -approved drugs for dementedness are known generically as donepezil ( Aricept ) , and memantine ( Ebixa ) , and besides galantamine ( Reminyl ) , and rivastigmine ( Exelon ) have been recommended for the intervention of dementedness. Donepezil ( Aricept ) , galantamine ( Reminyl ) and rivastigmine ( Exelon ) are licensed for the intervention of mild to chair dementedness. Aricept, Exelon and Reminyl are known as Cholinesterase inhibitors, which increase the degree of the chemical acetylcholin in the encephalon to increase communicating between nervus cells because dementedness leads to a loss of nervus cells. Memantine ( Ebixa ) is licensed for the intervention of moderate to severe Alzheimer ‘s disease. Ebixa is different in that it blocks t he chemical glutamate. Dementia amendss nerve cells, which release inordinate sums of glutamate, doing farther harm of the encephalon. Drugs are non effectual for everyone, with estimations of between 40 to 60 % of people profiting from drugs. However, these drugs may be seting some aged at hazard with their side-effects. These normally include diarrhoeas, fainting, sickness, fainting and utmost side-effects including fainting, slow bosom beats, and hallucinations. However, drugs have become â€Å" chemical blackjack † in the intervention of dementedness. It was revealed that the NHS has struggled to get by with the lifting Numberss of dementedness patients and as a consequence have turned to anti-psychotic drugs, which was prescribed ab initio for schizophrenic disorder. The National Audit Office says up to 150,000 people with dementedness were unsuitably prescribed drugs, lending to a possible 1,800 deceases a year.A Much research is being done on dementedness in order to assist physicians better understand, diagnose, and handle the disease. Previous researches carried out have found correlativities that vitamin vitamin E and vitamin b12 may forestall the diminution with the aged. An American survey suggests that decrease of fatty acids in the encephalon can assist handle Alzheimer ‘s, yet this survey was carried out on mice and hence can non be generalised to human existences. Experts predict that fleshiness leads to dementia and therefore a healthier lifestyle including a better diet, more exercising and lower blood force per unit area can cut down the hazard. The Dementia 2010 study estimated that the cost of dementedness in the UK was ?23 billion in 2008, with each patient bing ?27,647 per twelvemonth. As Rebecca Atwood emphasiss, â€Å" We need a committedness to a major addition in research support if we are to get the better of dementedness one time and for all. † She stresses farther that â€Å" If we do non significantly increase investing in dementia research in order to develop new interventions, we are headed for an unmitigated societal and economic catastrophe. † The National Dementia Strategy, produced by Department of Health promised ?150m would be used to â€Å" pump premier † diagnosing and intervention. Despite this promise, dementedness is still non seen as a precedence and remains further down the picking order as its cause for concern is non that of a high precedence. Amyyas Morse, the caput of the NAO, said the 2009 authorities scheme had been meant to â€Å" transform the lives of people with deme ntedness † . â€Å" The action nevertheless, has non so far matched the rhetoric in footings of urgency†¦ it is improbable that the intended and much needed transmutation of services will be delivered within the scheme ‘s five twelvemonth timeframe. † Curates have admitted merely 3 per cent of the medical research budget is spent on analyzing Alzheimer ‘s and its related conditions, while funding for malignant neoplastic disease and bosom disease has risen. The Medical Research Council and the Department of Health revealed that in 2008/09, passing on dementedness research fell 7 per cent to ?29.9 million. At the same clip, funding for malignant neoplastic disease surveies rose to ?250 million and ?75 million for bosom disease. ( Martin, 2009 ) Despite warnings of increased agony, the deficiency of concern may be related to perceptual experiences of ageing. In decision, one of the stigmatism of dementedness is agism, and this agism is holding an consequence on research and support of dementedness. How to cite Dementia And The Associated Stigmatisation Health And Social Care Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Research Analysis of the Sydney Opera House

The Field To define the major design and architect principles, specific attention should be made to the Wolansky Foundation defining the site, expenditures, changes, and the architect’s concepts (n. p.).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Research Analysis of the Sydney Opera House specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Regarding the fact that the design and construction of the Opera House are presented as the world’s known masterpiece, it is necessary to study historical, social, and design perspectives to define why the Opera House has acquired the respectable status in the world of architecture. Theory Neil Brown theory allows to define the frameworks and approaches through which the art object can be studied (n. p.) Hence, there is a direct correlation between the functional fittings and building spaces presented by Utzon in his project of Sydney Opera House. Tombesi and Martel state, â€Å"†¦the i ntroduction of mechanical appliances into the domestic environment†¦moved alongside not only with the necessity to shelter such equipment but also with the challenge to integrate it into the spatial structure of the building† (43). Judging from this perspective, modern movement has a direct relation to the industry and architecture where mass production, esthetic metaphors, and cultural icons have been closely intertwined. Engineering, equipment, and design should follow the overall concept and become an integrative force (Tombesi and Martel 51). The formal and technical innovation of the Opera House implies the use of the construction project in an aesthetic context whereas the second dimension reflects an opportunity to test technical research for the purpose of establishing the relation between functionality and design. Object Sydney Opera House is considered to be one of the most recognized architectural constructions that is included into the list of World Heritage b uildings. Its innovative design involves countless techniques and ides. The construction principles reflect the vision of providing the House with multifunctionality and architectural integrity at the same time (Building Program n. p.). Designer The Psychological The designer combined different ideas into a unity of shapes, colors, and lines. Hence, roof silhouettes overlapping interior volumes, spherical geometry and elements of nature have been skillfully combine to render the concept of modern design (The Wolansky Foundation n. p.).Advertising Looking for essay on architecture? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Socio-cultural Utzon managed to integrate functional fitting of the construction, as well as its cultural value. The construction was inspired by different examples from classical and modern architecture. Introduction of Greek motives presented through theatre seating and introducing Circular Quays are among the ma in cultural and social influences (The Wolansky Foundation n. p.). The Economic The construction was created by an outstanding architect Jorn Utzon (Building Program n. p). In 1956, when the Australian Government announced an international design competition, the main purpose was to construct two performance halls for symphony concerts and for opera (Overview: The Building n. p.). Searching for a candidature from a pile of submissions, Jorn Utzon created great interest among the governmental authority because of his radical principles to construction (Overview: The Building n. p.). The main economic perspective pursued by Utzon was to fit the introduction into the harbor landscape. The Methodology Use of glass in combination with concrete cribs was the main tool used in the construction. The shell structures have been constructed gradually and, with the help of the materials, the designers have managed to convey a geometric concept. The Artifact The effect introduced from light, col or, shape and material creates a sophisticated mixture where one component enhances the effect and function of another (Overview: The Building n. p.). The design closely correlates with functionality and vice versa. Works Cited â€Å"Building Program† Sydney Opera House. 2011. Web. â€Å"Overview: The Building† Sydney Opera House. 2011. Web.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Research Analysis of the Sydney Opera House specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More â€Å"Neil Brown Theory†. Ways to Study the Art. PDF File. 13-24. The Wolansky Foundation. Sydney Opera House. 2000. Web. Tombesi, Paolo, and Andrew Martel. â€Å"Vessels of Expression and Flows of Innovation.† Journal Of Architectural Education 59.2 (2005): 43-52. Print. This essay on Research Analysis of the Sydney Opera House was written and submitted by user Mikayla Cline to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Friday, March 20, 2020

Mussolinis Rule of Italy essays

Mussolini's Rule of Italy essays Mussolini's Rule of Italy Mussolini ruled Italy between 1923 and 1939. Many important things happened during this time. In 1922, Mussolini organized the march to Rome. 26,000 "blackshirts" marched to Rome and threatened the Italian King Emmanuel II. The King asked Mussolini to form the next government and on October 29, 1922, Mussolini became Prime Minister. In 1923, the Acerbo Laws were formed so that the party with the most votes would recieve two-thirds of the seats in the Chamber of Deputies. Because of this, the Fascists became the largest party in Parliament. When Mussolini wins, he outlaws all other parties. To set the seal on Mussolini's success, the Catholic Church signed the Lateran pact with the Fascist government. For doing this, the church got complete control over education, and the Pope's right to rule over Vatican City. Mussolini got the Pope's acceptance of his way of running Italy. This made the people also accept him. Also in 1923, Mussolini took control over the "22 corporations" so he could skim money off the top of them. These were things such as coal and transportation. In 1927, the OVRA (secret police) were established. They killed people who did not obey Mussolini. To stop Hitler from invading Austria, Italy, Poland, France, and Czechoslovakia came together and formed the Stresa Front. This stopped Hitler for awhile. In 1936, Mussolini invaded Abyssinia because he wanted the oil and wanted to make a new Roman Empire. Abyssinia let Mussolini take over. Next, Rome and Berlin signed a treaty to support each other if there was a war. Also, Mussolini sent troops to the Spanish Civil War. He did this to support other Fascists. ...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Biography of Aristotle, Influential Greek Philosopher

Biography of Aristotle, Influential Greek Philosopher Aristotle (384–322 BCE) was one of the most important western philosophers in history. A student of Plato, Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great. He later went on to form his own Lyceum (school) in Athens, where he developed important philosophical, scientific, and practical theories, many of which had great significance during the Middle Ages and are still influential today. Aristotle wrote on logic, nature, psychology, ethics, politics, and art, developed one of the first systems for classifying plants and animals, and posited significant theories on topics ranging from the physics of motion to the qualities of the soul. He is credited with developing deductive (top-down) reasoning, a form of logic used in the scientific process and highly valued in business, finance, and other modern settings. Fast Facts: Aristotle Known For: One of the greatest and most influential philosophers of all time, as well as a tremendously important figure in the history of science, mathematics, and theaterBorn: 384 BCE in Stagira, GreeceParents: Nichomachus (mother unknown)Died: 322 BCE in Chalcis, on the island of EuboeaEducation: Academy of PlatoPublished Works: Over 200 works, including Nichomachean Ethics, Politics, Metaphysics, Poetics, and Prior AnalyticsSpouse(s): Pythias,  Herpyllis of Stagira (mistress with whom he had a son)Children: NicomachusNotable Quote: Excellence is never an accident. It is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, and intelligent execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives – choice, not chance, determines your destiny. Early Life Aristotle was born in 384 BCE in the city of Stagira in Macedonia, a seaport on the Thracian coast. His father Nichomacus was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia. Nichomacus died while Aristotle was still young, so he came under the guardianship of Proxenus. It was Proxenus who sent Aristotle, at age 17, to complete his education in Athens. Upon arriving in Athens, Aristotle attended the institution of philosophical learning known as the Academy, which was founded by Socrates pupil Plato, where he stayed until Platos death in 347. Aristotle was an outstanding pupil and soon began giving his own lectures on rhetoric. Despite his impressive reputation, however, Aristotle often disagreed with Platos ideas; the result was that, when a successor to Plato was selected, Aristotle was passed over in favor of Platos nephew Speusippus. With no future at the Academy, Aristotle was not at loose ends for long. Hermeas, ruler of Atarneus and Assos in Mysia, issued an invitation for Aristotle to join his court. Aristotle remained in Mysia for three years, during which he married the kings niece Pythias. At the end of the three years, Hermeas was attacked by the Persians, leading Aristotle to leave the country and head to the island of Lesbos. Aristotle and Alexander the Great In 343 BCE, Aristotle received a request from King Phillip II of Macedonia to tutor his son Alexander. Aristotle agreed to the request, spending seven years working closely with the young man who would later become the famous Alexander the Great. At the end of seven years, Alexander was crowned king and Aristotles work was complete. Though he left Macedonia, however, Aristotle stayed in close touch with the young king, corresponding regularly; it is likely that Aristotles counsel had a significant impact on Alexander for many years, inspiring his love of literature and the arts. The Lyceum and Peripatetic Philosophy Leaving Macedonia, Aristotle returned to Athens where he set up The Lyceum, a school that became a rival to Platos Academy. Unlike Plato, Aristotle taught that it is possible to determine the end causes and purposes of existence and that it is possible to figure out these causes and purposes through observation. This philosophical approach, called teleology, became one of the major philosophical concepts of the western world. Aristotle divided his study of philosophy into three groups: practical, theoretical, and productive sciences. Practical philosophy included the study of fields such as biology, mathematics, and physics. Theoretical philosophy included metaphysics and the study of the soul. Productive philosophy focused on crafts, agriculture, and the arts. During his lectures, Aristotle would constantly walk back and forth around the Lyceums exercise grounds. This habit became the inspiration for the term peripatetic philosophy, meaning walking around philosophy. It was during this period that Aristotle wrote many of his most important works, which had profound impacts on later philosophical thinking. At the same time, he and his students conducted scientific and philosophical research and amassed a significant library. Aristotle continued to lecture at the Lyceum for 12 years, finally selecting a favorite student, Theophrastus, to succeed him. Death In 323 BCE when Alexander the Great died, the Assembly in Athens declared war against Alexanders successor, Antiphon. Aristotle was considered an anti-Athenian, pro-Macedonian, and so he was charged with impiety. Bearing in mind the fate of Socrates, who was unjustly put to death, Aristotle went into voluntary exile to Chalcis, where he died one year later of a digestive ailment in 322 BCE at the age of 63. Legacy Aristotles philosophy, logic, science, metaphysics, ethics, politics, and system of deductive reasoning have been of inestimable importance to philosophy, science, and even business. His theories impacted the medieval church and continue to have significance today. Among his vast discoveries and creations are included: The disciplines of natural philosophy (natural history) and metaphysicsSome of the concepts that underlie Newtonian laws of motionSome of the first classifications of living things based on logical categories (the Scala Naturae)Influential theories about ethics, war, and economicsSignificant and influential theories and ideas about rhetoric, poetry, and theater Aristotles syllogism is at the basis of deductive (top-down) reasoning, arguably the most common form of reasoning used today. A textbook example of a syllogism is: Major premise: All humans are mortal.Minor premise: Socrates is a human.Conclusion: Socrates is mortal. Sources Mark, Joshua J. Aristotle. Ancient History Encyclopedia, 02 Sep 2009.Shields, Christopher. â€Å"Aristotle.†Ã‚  Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 09 July 2015.

Monday, February 17, 2020

Sensation and Perception Homework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Sensation and Perception Homework - Essay Example For this process to complete the function of the eye is the most important one and its shape, size and location determine the capacity and functionality of the seeing capacity. Before deciding the design of eye for the new animal species, the most important thing we have to consider is the habitat and the surrounding environment where it will have to struggle for its survival. The foremost thing we should know is whether it is a hunting and assaulting animal or if it is a prey animal taken for food purpose. For the species involved in hunting the frontal eyes suit better because these eyes can give excellent depth perception due to the location in front of the head. On the other hand, the lateral position of eyes suits better for the prey-animals which gives them a panoramic view of the objects and helps them to anticipate and percept their hunters. After the placement of eye, its size and shape also determine its functionality. There are mainly two types of eyes, the most developed eyes like we, the human beings, have and the simple ones like a patch of photosensitive pigment which is found in many worms. The third option for designing the visual system is about its ability for movement. The movement of eyes helps the living beings to see objects from different angles giving better view of the object. However, the movement of the eyes is not sufficient in itself, the body shape should also facilitate in its movements to have wider seeing perspective. Thus, I would like for the new animal species a visual design which has frontal position to give excellent depth perception, medium sized to allow fast movements and the starling-like eye movements. 1.2 About fifty years ago, many a brain disorders were undiagnosed due to the lack of modern-day equipments and the research which by now has facilitated the medical professionals to anticipate and diagnose complicated neurological and brain disorders like Parkinson's, Anton's syndrome, and Meige syndrome etc. due to the lack of proper awareness about such disorders, the lives of patients were miserable and they had to rely much on their attendants. The real problem with some of the patients having brain disorder was that they did not realize they suffered some sort of disorder like in Meige syndrome in which the patients affirmed quite adamantly that they were capable of seeing even though they cortically blind. However, now the medical science has made extensive researches and is now able to control these disorders to some extent (Charles Bonnet Syndrome. 2007). However, it is a matter of concern that there is no specific treatment for these disorders and the medical professionals are able to control it in initial stages as well as handling some symptoms of the disorder. It is hoped that with further concentrated researches, these disorders will be controlled efficiently within next 50 years. 1.3 Structure of the Eye The structure of the eye or as is called the eyeball, is spherical approximately 2.5 cm in diameter. The outer part of the eye consists of three layers of tissue. The outside layer is the sclera having protective coating and it covers about five-sixth of the eye surface. The middle layer is called choroids, a vascular layer which is continuous with the ciliary body and with the iris. It lies at the front of the eye. The innermost layer of the eye is the