Saturday, November 9, 2019

Factors Affecting Essay

In this assignment is an explanation of genetic, biological, environmental and socio-economic and lifestyle that effect the development of an individual. Also using the case study of Emily there is explanation on 2 predictable and 2 unpredictable life events that could be affecting her now and the in the future. I will then be discussing the 2 sides to the nature –nurture debate, and then I will be evaluating how nature and nurture have affected the development of Albert and Alan as children and as adults. INTRODUCTION: Growth and development are different from one another, growth means increase in size or a mass of tissue and development involves the changes in some ability as well as some measured quantity of height, weight. Some of the emotional, social and intellectual changes in a lifespan could be described in terms of development. Maturation is different from growth and development; it is used when development is assumed to be genetically programmed sequences of change. Some of the facts that affect growth and development of a child are Children inherit some characteristic from parents i.e. parents who have intelligence are more likely to have with higher level intelligence. Daughters often reach menarche at roughly the same age as mother and will have a similar length of the menstrual cycle as their mother. Boys are generally longer and heavier than girls when born, Genetic disorders can affect both child growth and development. LIFE FACTORS THAT AFFECT DEVELOPMENT Development and growth are mainly dependent on many factors, which some will affect children and individuals more than others. Some of the factors can have a positive or negative impact on development and growth of individuals  in society. The factors that affect the development of an individual in society: BIOLOGICAL: foetal alcohol syndrome infections during pregnancy GENETIC: Down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, rheumatic disease, brittle bone disease. SOCIO-ECONOMIC: income, employment and education ENVIRONMENT: pollution family dysfunction culture LIFESTYLE: nutrition and dietary choices, misuse of substances. All of which affect an individual’s physical, intellectual, emotional and social aspects of development and growth. GENETIC FACTORS The human body has a nucleus with 23 pairs of chromosomes inside it; one chromosome comes from the mother and another from the father. Each chromosome carriers units of inheritance known has genes it these genes that create the instructions for making a new individual. Genetic diseases are a large proportion of the total diseases that individuals have to burden, around 50% of deafness is due to genetics and around 40-50% of miscarriages are connected to genetic factors. RHEUMATIC DISEASE Individuals are more at risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis if they have relatives with the disease, but in some cases individuals can develop the condition without any one in the family having the condition. Rheumatic disease is a disorder that affects the inflammation of the joints and ligaments, bones and the muscles. Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with rheumatic disease the cause is not fully understood but the environment and genetic influences play a major part in the condition. It is an extremely painful condition for individuals who suffer with it; it causes swelling, damage to the cartilages and bones, joints. It mainly affects the smaller bones individuals’ feet, hands and wrists, the autoimmune process that contributes to the distress on the joints can also affect the eyes, lungs and skin, heart and blood vessels plus some other organs. It can affect the physical development of an individual who suffers with the disease, it can limit their day to day physica l movement due to the amount of pain they will experience; individuals who have restricted activities are more likely to suffer with depression as well. An adult could struggle to hold a job down  due to the time there would have to miss work. Rheumatoid arthritis can affect a child’s intellectual development due to the amount of time they will be absent from school due to the pain or hospital appointments. It will limit the time that they can use computers or game consoles due to the stiffness in their hands and wrists and have very poor academic attendance due to a flare up of the condition. Emotional development of an individual with the condition may be affected they may feel different from other individuals and children could be made to feel excluded because of the condition. Some could become depressed as they believe the disease is taking over their life completely and feel that they cannot cope anymore. Rheumatoid arthritis could also affect individuals social life as a flare up could cause them to miss out on certain social events with friends or work colleagues and the fact that they could have being admitted to hospital. At the moment there is no cure for condition but there is a number of treatments that could slow the condition down and keep joint damage to minimum, the earlier the treatment is started the more effective it could be for the individual. The cause of rheumatoid arthritis is not completely understood but it is believed that genetic and the environmental issues influence the condition. CYSTIC FIBROSIS Cystic fibrosis is generally caused by genetic disorder, it is caused by a defective gene it is thought that about 4% of the population carry this gene in the UK alone. Has the gene is recessive children born to parents who carry the gene will not develop cystic fibrosis unless both parents are carriers. If both parents have the defective gene than there is a chance that they child will be born with the condition. Cystic fibrosis is a disorder that results in the production of a defective protein that can cause a buildup of sticky mucus forming in the lungs and digestive system of individuals. Other symptoms are a troublesome cough, repeated chest infections and poor weight gain these are not unique to individuals who suffer with cystic fibrosis. It is a complex disease that affects many different organs in the body. It’s quite common for individuals to experience some issues with lung function although not every sufferer will be affected. With physiotherapy and some medication can help to control lung infections and prevent the buildup of mucus that damages the lungs. Besides  affecting the lungs it can affect the pancreas due to the buildup of thick sticky mucus that blocks the ducts, which can reduce the amount of insulin that is produced and stopping the digestive enzymes getting to the intestines to aid digestion. This can lead to poor malnutrition, poor growth and some physical weakness and delayed puberty. Babies born with cystic fibrosis develop a bowel obstruction called meconium ileus that is present at birth or within the first few days, it’s a thick black material present in the bowel and it’s so thick that it blocks the bowel. Some individuals are prone to develop bone disease due to lack of nutrition, it can cause fertility problems but does not cause sexual impotency. Men with cystic fibrosis the tubes that carry the sperm are sometimes blocked causing infertility, cystic fibrosis in women can affect fertility due to being underweight and having irregular menstrual cycles and a thicker vaginal mucus. It can cause some blockage of the small ducts in the liver which can lead to liver disease; although this only affects 8% of individuals it is a serious health risk that could require a liver transplant. Social development of a child with cystic fibrosis they will find it hard to interact with other children due to a long period of absence from school, and in any other setting. The emotional development of a child with the condition is that they might become emotional distressed, suffer with mild depression and feel embarrassed because of the effects. Physical development of a child with cystic fibrosis is they are capable of taking part in physical activity such as play and some regular exercise, but with a persistent cough and difficulty in breathing they could become tired quickly need to rest more. Some children’s current health status might not allow them to take part in any activities, when they do will need to take frequent breaks to cough and have a drink. The intellectual development of a child with cystic fibrosis is due to a long absence from school extra help will be needed for them to catch up and some children might have special educational needs, but most of them are academically able to succeed like their peers. All sufferers with the condition should receive appropriate health care to enable them to live longer and healthier lives. BIOLOGICAL FACTORS Biological influences before birth have a dramatic influence on the development of a child, factors that could affect the development are if the  mother smokes, takes drugs or drinks a large amount of alcohol. One factor is if the mother drinks heavily during her pregnancy this will have a negative effect on the development of the baby and could cause foetal alcohol syndrome. FOETAL ALCOHOL SYNDROME Foetal alcohol syndrome is more severe of the birth defects that are known as foetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Foetal alcohol effects is known as alcohol related birth defects which is the milder end of the condition, some of the conditions that are related is alcohol related neuro- alcohol during pregnancy. Foetal alcohol syndrome disorder is caused through pregnant women drinking alcohol during their pregnancy. Alcohol can affect the development of the fetus at any stage during the pregnancy including the earliest stages of pregnancy; the effects of alcohol during pregnancy may include physical deformity, some behavioral issues, damage to the central nervous system. According to National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (2001-2004), â€Å"FASD is the leading known preventable cause of mental retardation and birth defects, and a leading known cause of learning disabilities.† Accessed 23/6/14. Drinking during pregnancy is damaging for the unborn child and cause major social, emotional effects for the child’s life which cannot be out grown or treated. Alcohol during pregnancy can cause brain damage which can lead to a range of developmental, cognitive issues that will appear at any time during childhood. Individuals who have FASD quite often of issues with coordination, emotional control, school work and socialisation and struggle to hold a job. Often make the wrong decisions, trust the wrong people and difficulty understanding any consequences of their own actions. Babies born with FAS are normally a low birth weight are unable to suck effectively, some will be over sensitive to light any noise or touch will become irritable easily and are very slow to develop through the different stages of infancy. They are very vulnerable to other infections and have poor sleeping cycles or waking cycles some will be too stiff or floppy when being held. The physical features of babies born with FAS are their faces will be flattened; have a small upturned nose may have flattened philtrum and some have a thin upper lip. The physical development of a child with FAS are, will have problems with weight and height will tend to smaller than children  of an similarly age, will have a weak immune system leading them to prone to catch infections easily. Depending on the damage there could have a heart defect which cause them to take part in any kind of physical activity. Intellectual development of a child with FAS is there could have lower IQ or in some cases it could be higher than normal. Some children will have a degree of language disability or delayed language development will often have problems with communicating whether their development is delayed. Have Issues Memory which can lead to their educational achievements being extremely limited and are more likely to be in trouble during their education. Will develop poor relationships during their childhood and adulthood, will constantly be in trouble with the law due to mixing with wrong crowd. Could have immature behaviour due to the lack of social skills and because of the lack of control over their behaviour can affect any kind of social connect. All of which will affect their social development. Children can be very affectionate when around others but at more or less at the time be very hyperactive which can cause problems for teachers or other individuals in any situation. Due to them being hyperactivity their will need any kind of special attention from individuals during their lifespan. TOXOPLASMOSIS Toxoplasmosis is infection that is caused by a common parasite known as Toxoplasma gondii, which is found in different warm blooded animals such as sheep, dogs and humans which can be infected with tiny single cell of parasite. The parasite can only be passed on through the environment or food chain or if pregnant women infect her unborn child. It is very rarely that it is passed from human to human through any organ transplantation. In some cases toxoplasmosis doesn’t show any systems and an individual could be unaware that they are infected. In most healthy individuals the immune system is normally strong enough to prevent the parasite to cause serious illness. Individuals who have being affected with toxoplasmosis are most likely to be immune to further infections in their lifespan. So if a woman who has being previously infected becomes pregnant there should be no risk to the baby, a blood test would be needed to find out to see is she immune. Toxoplasmosis can cause lymph nodes to swell particularly in the throat and armpits, which can be like flu systems such as high temperature, muscles  aching, extreme tiredness and sore throat. During pregnancy the risk of developing toxoplasmosis is very low, â€Å"a 2008 study showed that in non-immune women (those who haven’t had the infection before), about 5 in 1,000 may get a toxoplasmosis infection.† 24/6/14). If a women does develop toxoplasmosis when she is pregnant or shortly after conceiving the risk is that she will pass it on to the baby, however if it is passed from mother to baby it is known as congenital toxoplasmosis. The risk of passing it on is greater in the third trimester with 70% of babies becoming infected, but in the early stages of pregnancy only about 15% of babies will become infected. Although the woman might not experience any systems herself, an infection that develops during the early stages can increase the likely hood of miscarriage during the first 23 weeks, it can also cause a stillbirth later on in the pregnancy. Babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis the systems vary depending when the mother became infected some systems are more severe if she was infected around time she became infected or during the first or second trimester. The baby could have hydrocephalus water on the brain, brain damage, epilepsy which is a condition that affects the brain and causes repeated seizures, some deafness growth problems and eye infections or reduced vision. They could also have yellowing of the skin known as jaundice and the white of the eyes, an enlarged liver or spleen and cerebral palsy that affects the brain or nervous system condition that affects the movement or co-ordination of a child. In some cases if the mother is infected during the last trimester and the infection is passed on the baby may not have any symptoms at birth, but complications could develop later on in life with the child developing reduced vision or some hearing loss even some learning difficulties. â€Å"New research is looking at other ways of diagnosing toxoplasmosis – for example, by identifying the DNA of the T. gondii parasite in samples of cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid that surrounds your brain and spinal cord). It’s hoped that this may be a quicker and more reliable method of diagnosis, and will help confirm whether the damage to the brain has been caused by toxoplasmosis rather than by another condition.† (accessed 24/6/14). SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS Socio-economic factors that influence the development and growth of individuals in society, are income and expenditure the economic resources that a family has can make a major difference to the quality of life an individual has. INCOME Income can affect the development and growth of individual in society and can have a major difference in their quality of life. Income is the amount of money that the household receives weekly or monthly, it enables them to pay for their accommodation, buy food and clothes for the family. The main sources of income mainly come from wages for employment, benefits paid by the government or money that is raised from a sale of a property. Individuals who receive a low income may experience poverty and are the ones most likely to suffer with ill health and have opportunities restricted. A lack of income could mean to individuals that there will have a lack of resources and not being able to live in acceptable way in society. For some individuals it means that they are living absolute poverty. Many will find it hard to take part in the community which could lead to social exclusion. Most children that are born to families who experience some kind poverty may find it hard to escape and become trapped in the same situation has they develop into adulthood. A child living in a low income home will have low self-confidence and low self-esteem some will experience a poor diet due to the lack of funds to buy nutritional food. Will live in poor housing conditions and are more likely to sufferer with related health issues, caused through damp or mould. Will have parents who are extremely stressed over money issues have little chance of having the latest hi tech phones, computers games and expensive clothes. Will have limited access to books to help them with school work and because of the low income might not be able to do homework due to the family home being overcrowded so no place for them to study. The graph shows the amount of individuals across the country who are living in low income households. EDUCATION Education factors that influence the development and growth of individuals in  society, is that individuals with little qualifications are more likely to be unemployed or in low paid work than others at the same age who have qualifications. Families have a major impact on children’s learning and educational development, a child’s academic progress and level of engagement at school could be affected by certain environments, the parents attitude towards education and how much involvement the parent has with child’s education i.e. helping with school work, volunteering in school and involvement in any school activities. The families’ ability to provide the appropriate learning environment at home could be limited due to lack of financial situation, the parent having attained low grades or mental health issues. Negative impact on education is that individuals will be put under pressure to leave school and earn money to ease the situation within the family. Schools in the neighbourhood could be disadvantaged from other schools they might lack valuable resources in the learning environment and have restricted space for children to play and the school could have a limited access to new technology and updated information. Peer groups can influence individuals during their education, attitudes and beliefs could be copied from who we mix with or at least from people we believe are the same as ourselves. Besides the family peer groups are seen as second source of social learning. Attitudes and values are influenced by the experiences people have had and the culture that they are exposed to will influence their educational experience. ENVIRONMENT FACTORS Environment factors that influence the development and growth of individuals in society, the environment that where individuals are brought up in or live in and the amount of pollution in the area. POLLUTION Pollution can influence the development and a source of ill health among every individual in society, decades ago with a lack of sanitation and poor sewage across the country resulted in many life threatening diseases such as cholera. Cholera is a bacterial infection caused by drinking contaminated water or food that has been in contact with contaminated water. Not all individuals who get infected will develop symptoms but those who do will experience severe diarrhea, a feeling of being sick and stomach cramps, which usually develop in a few days after infection. If left untreated an  individual can quickly become dehydrated and could go into shock due to a sudden drop in their blood pressure and in some cases could be fatal. The condition is mostly common now in the regions of the world that as poor satiation with no cases reported in England for years travelers who go abroad occasionally bring the infection back with them, from countries like Asia, Africa and the Middle East. â⠂¬Å"The World Health Organization estimates that there are between 3 and 5 million cases of cholera worldwide every year.† (Accessed 23/6/14). Until quite recently before lead was removed from petrol or paint the concern was that lead pollution in the air could affect the brain development of a child, they are still issues today about air and water pollution. Lead is a naturally occurring basic element and a metal, lead pollution occurs because of the lead that’s in the atmosphere that effects the environment. Lead pollution primarily came from cars in the past and in the past the dangers were unknown. Lead poisoning could cause birth defects in unborn children and could kill a person if enough was in the body and some deposits of lead in soil can harm both humans and animals by absorbing into the Lead in the body cam damage internal organs individuals also can have damage to brain and the nervous system; it can also cause reproductive disorders or osteoporosis and in some cases can be fatal. With pollution still being affected now individuals in the cities are still at risk of developing lung diseases, it can affect a child’s physical development and cause respiratory problems in all individuals, and babies and children growth can be restricted and in some cases cause asthma. An individual’s physical and intellectual development could be restricted due to the pollution being so high, with being unable access social activities or attend education facilities due to ill health. HOUSING Poor housing conditions can delay development and growth in individuals in society and cause poor health conditions. Poor quality housing with damp and mould can increase the risk of individuals developing inflammatory diseases and asthma. Other problems such as poor lightening, lack of facilities over crowded areas and the pollution from traffic or industrial sites. The older generation on low income will worry over the cost of heating bills and are more likely to leave the heating off during snaps of cold weather. Children  in poor housing conditions are more likely to have increased risk of ill health and some disabilities through to early adulthood. Bad housing conditions are linked to debilitating and even fatal illnesses and accidents. Children in overcrowded conditions are more likely to suffer with meningitis; it is life threatening and leave long term effects as deafness, blindness and in some cases behavioral problems. Another illness that is linked to overcrowding is tuberculosis and it can lead to serious medical issues and some cases can be fatal. Their physical development will be affected due to the unfit conditions and are more likely to have respiratory problems such as coughing, wheezing and asthmatic. This will restrict their physical activities as they need to stop taking part because of medical conditions. For many children with the conditions mean they will lose sleep and miss school regularly. The intellectually development and growth of individuals especially children could be affected by overcrowding in a property, by having disturbed sleep from the noise either in the house or surrounding area, which could lead to them having little concentration in school. Social development could be affected due to high risk crime rate in the neighbourhood, individuals will be scared to leave their properties in case their attacked or broken into. With little social connect and communication people will be isolated and feel that they are not part of a community that they live in. which could lead to their emotional developmental being affected by becoming depressed, and unapproachable by other individuals in community. LIFESTYLE FACTORS Lifestyle factors that can have influence on the development and growth of an individual in society, is how an individual spends their time and money to create a better living. Some lifestyle choices will be influenced by their culture and individuals in their life. Many individuals develop habits that are connected to diet, exercise or alcohol whilst some will never choose a lifestyle but just seem to fall into one. SUBSTANCE MISUSE Substance is either illicit or prescribed drugs, alcohol or solvents misuse is the consumption of the substances which could be for dependent use or associated to having harmful effect on any individual in society. The department of health states that men should only have 4 units of alcohol a  day and women should have no more than 3 units. It is well documented that the younger generation of men and women lifestyle involves more than the recommended units with them drinking heavily on a daily basis. A national reported stated that men and women had stated that they had taken illicit drugs, roughly one out of three young men and one in five young women stated that they had used cannabis. All kinds of substance misuse is harmfully and can cause a number of health risks, the use of drugs, alcohol and solvents can cause individuals to have accident, unsociable behaviour crime and health issues including poisoning, or overdose. The use of more potential harmful drugs can cause individuals to have higher risks with their health and greater social risks in the community. Physical dependency is when the substance is used in order to feel good, or avoid feeling bad, this is done to avoid any physical discomfort and when it is used to avoid anxiety or mental stress it is known as psychological dependence. It is stated that children whose parents are misusing substances are at a increased risk of neglect, emotional and physical and sexual abuse either by the parent or because the child is vulnerable to others who misuse. Children’s physical emotional, intellectual and social developmental needs can be serious affected their parent’s misuse of substances. The physical harm could be if children have access to drug paraphernalia within the home, substance misuse in pregnancy can result in chemical dependency when born. Parents are putting children at risk by neglecting their needs concerning factors are children receiving inadequate supervision health appointments being used or advice not being sought. Children’s education disrupted and poor attendance at school due to them not attending regularly, because the parent is high on a substance. Children having no clear boundaries in the family home with the child sometimes assuming the role of the parent. They emotional and social needs will also be neglected as the parent will ignore them and not show them any kind affection. The only social development they will have is around other individuals who use substances in they life. PREDICTABLE AND UNPREDICTABLE EVENTS Predictable and unpredictable life events are influenced by a number of life factors and individuals are also influenced by the different events that happen. A number of changes in an individuals life can be predicted whilst  many others are unpredicted. An unpredictable event that could be affecting Emily now is moving to a new school after the recent divorce of her parents, she is finding the transition very difficult to cope with Physically she is finding it hard to adjust to the new surroundings of the school, since the move she has started suffering with panic attacks and eating less at meals times leaving her feeling weak and exhausted and unable to function in simply tasks. Intellectually since she missed quite a few weeks of schooling she has fallen behind the rest of the class adding to the stress. Her class work is starting to suffer in some areas and she is finding it hard to concentrate because of all of the upheaval and sadness leading to her working at a slower rate f rom the rest of the class. Although she has these issues she is spending time practicing on her sing and playing guitar by spending as much time as possible on her own. Emotionally Emily is becoming moody and angry very quickly with her mother as she blames her not having her father around anymore and she is becoming jealous of her twin brothers. As she believes that they are taking all the attention of her mother away from her. She feels that no one understands how she feels and this is affecting her confidence and feels unloved. She unhappy about the current situation she finds herself in and as started to be disruptive at home. Socially Emily is finding it difficult informing new friendships at school or near her home, she is becoming very isolated from her family by spending time in her room. She is wants to be with the friends she had at her previous school and home, and finding it hard to stay in touch with them. As a result of not forming new friendships easily it has knocked her confidence further and refusing to attend school or any other social situation. A predictable life event that could affect Emily in the future is leaving home, which could influence her development in adulthood. The physical development which will have a major impact on her as individual will be that she will have a change in her diet due to lack of cooking experience, learning to cook and have food that is high in nutrition will be positive experience and could influence her development in adulthood by trying other new experiences. Her intellectual development will be influenced through her having to take control of her own finances, paying all the bills and learning how to much her money till next pay day. Her emotional development could be influenced by her becoming more independent  and feeling that she as achieved something in her life. The negative side to emotional development is that she will feel she has lost the support of her family and become lonely. Developing new relationships will influences her social development as individual in society, and attending a community social group will boost her social contact and allow her to achieve her own independence as individual and have control over her environment. Another unpredictable life event could be the death of her grandmother that will affect her emotional wellbeing and social wellbeing. Emily will need to learn to cope with her loss of the person she thought the world off; she will have to come to terms that she will never see the person again and never be able to talk to her again. Her physical development will be affected as she will not have the energy to get up and do any physical activity during her grief. She will feel angry and unable to eat so will have less energy to do daily tasks, she will be weak and exhausted due to the lack of sleep and finding it hard to cope because of the loss with her practical help with her living activities. Her emotional development will be affected because she as lost the person who provided her with the emotional support she needed and that she was emotionally attached to. She will be struggling to keep her emotions under control and will become angrier at grandmother for leaving to cope on her own. Her intellectual development will be affected because she will be too tired to attend work or if still studying to attend any of her lessons due to lack of concentration and confidence due to her grandmother no longer reassuring her that she can achieve anything that she tries. Emily’s social development will be affected because of the lack of support in leisure and social activities since her grandmother supported her during these Emily would easily give them up and become isolated for the time been. Another predictable life event that could affect Emily in the future is marriage, she will need to learn how to look after someone else and cope with the loss of her dependence in society. Her physical development could be changed due to the demands on her life; she will need to learn to adjust her cooking ability, she might need to change her diet to more a nutrition and take apart in more physical exercise. Her intellectual development will change as she could lose control over her over her finances, she will need to learn how to share the bills and budget for things that are needed in the future. Emily will need to  learn to put money away for her retirement or for when they start a family. Emily’s emotional needs will change as well she will need to safe in making emotional attachments and to feel safe in experiencing any kind of intimacy for the first time, by not being embarrassed about her body or looks. She will need to confident and trust the person she has chosen to spend her life with. Emily social development will have changed now instead of doing things by herself she will have someone to share her personal experiences with. With having extended family her social life could be busy at times and more social connect will be demanded from them. the days that she felt isolated will no longer be present but occasionally she might wish for them days again. NATURE/NURTURE The nature verse nurture debate argues that individuals in society are to be the way we are whilst others argue that it is about the way we are brought up and what influences us that makes the way we are. Nature is biological genetic influences nurture is social, economic and the environmental influences. Nature refers to the traits that individuals inherit or genetic, its well documented that most of the human aspects of development are driven directly or indirectly by the persons genetic makeup. This is what determines eye, hair colour, skin type and some other characteristics that are derived directly from our genetic makeup. Heredity determines the physiological differences between females and males with many differences present at birth whilst over differences don’t present themselves till a child reaches puberty. It causes girls to reach puberty earlier than boys and causes boys to have more muscles and be taller than girls in general. Heredity accounts for all gender differences in boys and girls, boys are more likely to be physically aggressive a gene that is linked to them having increased levels of testosterone. Researchers have stated that hormones play a role in the differences in visual and verbal abilities among children. It states that boys are more likely to have higher visual abilities and girls will have higher verbal abilities. Nurture refers to all the environmental influences that occur after conception, meaning how individual is raised that drives their development. Including the level of attachment, their beliefs and values and how much attention is given to the environmental  influences, i.e. some cultures practice and promote gender specific behaviour. The environment and specific cultures state that some behaviours are more appropriate for males whilst others are more appropriate for females. Environmental influences on gender differences involve parents treating their sons and daughters diffe rently from each other, there are more likely to respond more daughters who have requested help whist their sons are encouraged to solve issues independently. Most parents encourage gender behaviour by offering specific toys such trucks and toy guns for boys, dolls and prams for girls. Example: any musical talent is affected by nature; all musical skills are normally in heredity from parents. So parents who have a musical talent have children who have a musical talent too and have the same characteristics. Elvis Presley was a very talented musician that sang and played the piano he was loved and respected by nearly everyone. He composed loads of songs that individuals still like to listen to today. He had a daughter named Lisa Marie who is famous in her own right, both had the same taste for music, but her father is more famous for his talent in rock and roll than she is. Her father might have influenced her a lot in this which involves nurture but the musical talent that she possesses comes from her father. Example: drug addiction. In the case of Lisa Marie Presley the environment had a massive influence on her life, as she was known to be the daughter of Elvis, due to the circumstances surrounding her upbringing and life style. The environment had an influence on her taking drugs due to her having a lack of privacy. ALBERT AND ALAN The strengths and weaknesses in the nature and nurture debate concerning Albert and Alan; The strengths of Albert and Alan are they both have the same colour eye and hair, and both are extremely tall. Both had a caring nature and were successfully in their chosen careers. Both were successfully at school and enjoyed playing physical sport. Albert achieved the grades that he was predicted in subjects where Alan achieved higher grades and stayed on to achieve more. Albert had many friends and associates had lived his life to the full extent where, and socialized more frequently compared to Alan who only had friends in the school environment didn’t socialize much outside the school environment. They different upbringings influenced them both in different ways Alan loved to have expensive things where as Albert  enjoyed the simple things in life. The weaknesses that the environment had on Albert and Alan are they both attend different types of schools, because of the environment influences Alan was able to attend university where as Albert had to leave school and work to help with supporting his family. The environment influenced them both to smoke during their life, but due to marriage Albert had given up and relatively good health until recently. Alan had continued to smoke all his life and his health suffered dramatically until his recent death. Both nature and nurture played a part in the influences of Albert and Alan life either in a good way or bad way. CONCLUSION With all the different aspects that can affect growth and development of individuals’ society, individuals need to be aware of the dangers that could affect them to develop during their lifespan. Even though nature and nurture play a vital role in the influences of individuals it is actually the individual who makes the choice of what route they take. BIBLIOGRAPHY

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.